Amino acid and protein scavenging of radicals generated by iron/hydroperoxide system: an electron spin resonance spin trapping study.
Reduction of free radicals generated by Fe(II)/cumene-hydroperoxide (CumOOH) by amino acids (Gly, Cys, Met, His, and Trp) and proteins (bovine serum albumin (BSA), beta-lactoglobulin, and lactoferrin) was followed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy using alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN), 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane (MNP), and 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as spin traps. The radical species detected were mostly carbon-centered radicals from CumOOH fragmentation (methyl/*H3 and ethyl/*H2CH3), although carbon-centered radicals originated from amino acids could be formed in the presence of Cys, Met, His, or Trp. All proteins and amino acids, except Cys, were effective at inhibiting generation of radicals from the Fe(II)/CumOOH system. Trp was the amino acid with the highest antiradical activity, followed by His > Gly approximately Met. Lactoferrin was the protein showing the most efficient inhibition of radical formation from the Fe(II)/CumOOH system, and BSA and beta-lactoglobulin were not significantly different in their antiradical activities. These results suggest that proteins with higher inhibitory activity on lipid oxidation promoted by transition metal catalytic decomposition of hydroperoxides should be those with elevated metal-chelating and radical-scavenging properties as well as low concentration and accessibility of reducing groups from amino acids capable of activating metals, such as sulfhydryl groups.
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