Concentration and composition of free amino acids and osmolalities of porcine oviductal and uterine fluid and their effects on development of porcine IVF embryos.
The concentration of free amino acids and the osmolalities in porcine oviductal (OF) and uterine fluids (UFs) on day 3 (D3) and day 5 (D5) were measured by HPLC and Vapor Pressure Osmometer, respectively. Based on these measurements we designed new media based on PZM3 by modifying the amino acid composition and osmolality. The effectiveness of the modified PZM3 on the development of porcine IVF embryos was then investigated. A total of 24 free amino acids were measured, including 20 protein and 4 nonprotein amino acids (beta-alanine, taurine, ornithine, and citrulline). There was no significant difference in the total concentration of amino acids among D3OF (13.06 +/- 3.63 mmol/L), D3UF (10.54 +/- 5.16 mmol/L), or D5UF (10.23 +/- 6.69 mmol/L). But the total concentration of amino acids in D5OF (5.89 +/- 1.47 mmol/L) was significantly lower than the three fluids above. Some individual amino acids varied significantly depending on where they were collected and from which day. The blastocyst rates of porcine IVF embryos were not improved when embryos were cultured in PZM3 with amino acids at D3OF (PZM3-D3OF, 20.3 +/- 7.9%) or D5UF (PZM3-D5UF, 14.3 +/- 10.7%) concentrations or in PZM3-D3OF for the first 48 (20.5 +/- 15.1), 72 (25.6 +/- 10.4), and 96 (18.7 +/- 10.0) hr and then transferred into PZM3-D5UF compared with PZM3 with Sigma amino acid solution (PZM3-SAA) (30.8 +/- 9.1%). However, when IVF embryos were cultured in PZM3-D5UF, the average nuclear number per blastocyst (57.6 +/- 8.3) was increased compared to PZM3-SAA (40.5 +/- 3.5). The osmolalities in D3OF, D3UF, D5OF, and D5UF were 318 +/- 8, 320 +/- 32, 321, and 293 +/- 8 mOsM, respectively. When the IVF embryos were cultured in PZM3-SAA and PZM3-D3OF at a variety of osmolalities (150-360 mOsM), higher blastocyst rates were obtained at 270-300 mOsM in the PZM3-SAA group (24.6-33.9%) and 270-290 mOsM in PZM3-D3OF group (22.4-24.2%). The blastocyst rate gradually decreased when the osmolality was increased or decreased in both groups. When the embryos were cultured in PZM3-SAA at 330 mOsM for the first 72 hr and then transferred to 250 mOsM (33.3 +/- 3.4%), the blastocyst rate was higher than original PZM3 (21.2 +/- 2.2%) (288 mOsM).