Experimental models of coccidioidomycosis performed using various laboratory animals have been, and remain, a critical component of elucidation and understanding of the pathogenesis and host resistance to infection with Coccidioides spp., as well as to development of more efficacious antifungal therapies. The general availability of genetically defined strains, immunological reagents, ease of handling, and costs all contribute to the use of mice as the primary laboratory animal species for models of this disease. Five types of murine models are studied and include primary pulmonary disease, intraperitoneal with dissemination, intravenous infection emulating systemic disease, and intracranial or intrathecal infection emulating meningeal disease. Each of these models has been used to examine various aspects of host resistance, pathogenesis, or antifungal therapy. Other rodent species, such as rat, have been used much less frequently. A rabbit model of meningeal disease, established by intracisternal infection, has proven to model human meningitis well. This model is useful in studies of host response, as well as in therapy studies. A variety of other animal species including dogs, primates, and guinea pigs have been used to study host response and vaccine efficacy. However, cost and increased needs of animal care and husbandry are limitations that influence the use of the larger animal species.
We observed total GST activity and expression of GST subtypes in murine asthma models and GST expressions in induced sputum cells of asthmatics. Total GST activity was increased in BAL fluids of OVA-treated murine asthma model. GSTP and GSTA are highly expressed in peribronchiolar mononuclear inflam...
The ratios of yields of anti-baryons to baryons probes the mechanisms of
baryon-number transport. Results for anti-p/p, anti-\Lambda/\Lambda,
anti-\Xi+/\Xi- and anti-\Omega+/\Omega- in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 0.9, 2.76
and 7TeV, measured with the ALICE detector at the LHC, are reported. Within t...
We review recent theoretical and experimental e?orts aimed at the
Investigation of the physics of interacting disordered bosons (so-called dirty
Bosons) in the context of quantum magnetism. The physics of dirty bosons is
Relevant to a wide variety of condensed matter systems, encompassing Helium in...
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