Experimental models of coccidioidomycosis performed using various laboratory animals have been, and remain, a critical component of elucidation and understanding of the pathogenesis and host resistance to infection with Coccidioides spp., as well as to development of more efficacious antifungal therapies. The general availability of genetically defined strains, immunological reagents, ease of handling, and costs all contribute to the use of mice as the primary laboratory animal species for models of this disease. Five types of murine models are studied and include primary pulmonary disease, intraperitoneal with dissemination, intravenous infection emulating systemic disease, and intracranial or intrathecal infection emulating meningeal disease. Each of these models has been used to examine various aspects of host resistance, pathogenesis, or antifungal therapy. Other rodent species, such as rat, have been used much less frequently. A rabbit model of meningeal disease, established by intracisternal infection, has proven to model human meningitis well. This model is useful in studies of host response, as well as in therapy studies. A variety of other animal species including dogs, primates, and guinea pigs have been used to study host response and vaccine efficacy. However, cost and increased needs of animal care and husbandry are limitations that influence the use of the larger animal species.
We use the diffusion model (R. Ratcliff, 1978, A theory of memory retrieval, Psychological Review, Vol. 85, pp. 59-108) to account for the effects of masked and unmasked priming for identity and associatively related primes. The fits of the model led us to the following conclusion: Masked related pr...
An earlier measurement on the 4$^+$ to 2$^+$ radiative transition in $^8$Be
provided the first electromagnetic signature of its dumbbell-like shape.
However, the large uncertainty in the measured cross section does not allow a
stringent test of nuclear structure models. The present paper reports a...
We theoretically investigated phonon dispersion in AA-stacked, AB-stacked and
Twisted bilayer graphene with various rotation angles. The calculations were
Performed using the Born-von-Karman model for the intra-layer atomic
Interactions and the Lennard-Jones potential for the inter-layer interaction...
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