Excessive stimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors during ischemia contributes to apoptotic and excitotoxic nerve cell death. Kynurenic acid is a selective antagonist at the glycine co-agonist site of the NMDA receptor complex at low concentration, and it is a broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid receptor blocker at high concentration. Kynurenic acid provides neuroprotection in animal models of cerebral ischemia only at very high doses as it hardly crosses the blood-brain barrier. The neuroprotective effect of L-kynurenine sulfate, a precursor of kynurenic acid, was therefore studied because L-kynurenine readily crosses the blood-brain barrier. L-kynurenine sulfate was administered 15 min before permanent focal cerebral ischemia produced by electrocoagulation of the distal middle cerebral artery in mice. L-kynurenine sulfate induced a small decrease in the surface area of the brain infarction (10%, P<0.01) the ischemia-induced deterioration of spontaneous alternation, a measure of spatial memory, without altering the rectal temperature. In conclusion, the administration of L-kynurenine can elevate the brain concentration of kynurenic acid to neuroprotective levels, suggesting the potential clinical usefulness of L-kynurenine for the prevention of neuronal loss.
We study the supersymmetric effects in semi-leptonic
$B_s\to\phi\mu^+\mu^-$ decay. In our evaluations, we analyze the dependences of
The dimuon invariant mass spectrum and the forward-backward asymmetry on
Relevant supersymmetric couplings in the MSSM with and without R-parity. The
Analyses show the...
The longitudinal Schottky spectra of a radio-frequency (RF) bunched and
electron cooled 22Ne10+ ion beam at 70 MeV/u have been studied by a newly
installed resonant Schottky pick-up at the experimental cooler storage ring
(CSRe), at IMP. For an RF-bunched ion beam, a longitudinal momentum spread of...
We challenge the McDE scenario through a direct comparison with real
Data, in particular with the luminosity distance of Type Ia supernovae. By
Studying the existence and stability conditions of the critical points of the
Associated background dynamical system, we select only the cosmologically
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