Type distribution of HPV has been studied in different geographic regions, but the data are scanty from the new independent states of the former Soviet Union. Here the HPV prevalence and distribution of the most frequent high-risk HPV types among 3,187 women at different risk for HPV and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in Russia, Belarus, and Latvia is reported. HPV detection, type distribution and viral load analysis in DNA samples from cervical scrapes were done with real-time PCR-based assay detecting HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 52, and 58. The overall HPV prevalence was 31.2%, HPV16 was the most prevalent type followed by HPV31 and HPV33 group. The overall HPV prevalences in Russia, Belarus and Latvia were 33.4%, 27.5%, and 26.2%. The type distributions were similar in these countries, except for Latvia where HPV39 was the third prevalent genotype. HPV prevalence was highest (40.8%) among women from sexually transmitted disease clinic, followed by 30.9% among gynecological outpatients and 27.2% in screening patients. HPV detection increased with cytological abnormality (P = 0.0001) and lesion grade in the biopsy (P = 0.0001), from 27% to 72% in normal samples to cancer, and from 64% to 77% in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 to cancer. The normalized viral loads varied greatly between and among different HPV-types. The mean log HPV33 group copies/cell increased from negative for intraepithelial lesions to cancer (P = 0.049). Distribution of the most common high-risk HPV-types seems to be similar in these countries as reported in other major geographical regions.
We propose a method for tailoring the absorption in a photonic
Crystal membrane. For that purpose, we first applied Time Domain Coupled Mode
Theory to such a subwavelength membrane and demonstrated that 100% resonant
Absorption can be reached even for a symmetric membrane, if degenerate modes
Aims and objectives. To understand nurses' attitudes towards physical activity care for older people in long-term care facilities. Background. In long-term care facilities, a common approach to daily physical activity is based on the identifiable portions of daily life during w...
Filter bank-based multicarrier (FBMC) systems based on offset quadrature
amplitude modulation (FBMC/OQAM) have recently attracted increased interest due
to their enhanced flexibility, higher spectral efficiency, and better spectral
containment compared to conventional OFDM. FBMC/OQAM suffers, howev...
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