Most mammals have two distinct olfactory epithelia, the olfactory epithelium (OE) and vomeronasal epithelium (VNE), containing, respectively, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and vomeronasal receptor neurons (VRNs). Olfactory receptors (ORs), which couple to G alpha olf, are generally expressed by ORNs, whereas two vomeronasal receptor families (V1rs and V2rs) coupled respectively to G alpha i2 and G alpha o, are expressed by VRNs. Previously, we reported that one goat V1rs (gV1ra1) is expressed by ORNs and VRNs. To investigate the characteristics of vomeronasal-receptor-expressing ORNs in mammals we performed double-label in situ hybridization for gV1ra1, G alpha i2, G alpha olf, olfactory marker protein (OMP), and growth association protein 43 (GAP43). Goat V1r-expressing ORNs are categorized into two types situated in different areas of the epithelium. The first type of V1r-expressing ORN coexpressed G alpha i2, but not OMP or GAP43. The second type of V1r-expressing ORN expresses G alpha olf and OMP, but not G alpha i2 or GAP43. These findings suggest that the two types of V1r-expressing ORN in goat OE function using different G protein alpha subunits for chemoreception.
We found that miR-21 expression is elevated and associated with an increased differentiation potential in MSCs during adipogenesis and osteogenesis. The overexpression of miR-21 elevated the expression level of the differentiation-associated genes PPARγ and Cbfa-1 during MSC differentiation, wherea...
Candida albicans is responsible for a number of life-threatening infections
and causes considerable morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients.
Previous studies of C. albicans pathogenesis have suggested several steps must
occur before virulent infection, including early adhesion, invasi...
We have previously
Shown that a Schnakenberg-type Turing mechanism can recapitulate the branching
And protein expression patterns in wildtype and mutant lungs, but it is unclear
Whether this mechanism would extend to other branched organs that are regulated
By other proteins. Here we show that the G...
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