Frontal gland contents of soldiers of three Prorhinotermes species, Prorhinotermes canalifrons, Prorhinotermes inopinatus, and Prorhinotermes simplex, consisted of two groups of compounds: nitroalkenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed (E)-1-nitropentadec-1-ene as the major component of the glands with mean values of 152, 207, and 293 microg/individual for P. canalifrons, P. inopinatus, and P. simplex, respectively. Four other 1-nitroalkenes (C13, C14, C16, and C17), and two nitrodienes (C15 and C17) were also detected in the three species. The C17:1 nitroalkene was identified as (E)-1-nitroheptadec-1-ene. The sesquiterpene composition of the gland was species-specific: P. simplex contained (3Z,6E)-alpha-farnesene (mean of 39 microg/individual), while P. canalifrons and P. inopinatus contained the same compound (means of 0.5 and 1.5 microg/individual, respectively) as well as the (3E,6E) isomer (means of 1.8 and 0.7 microg/individual, respectively). Two other sesquiterpenes, trans-beta-bergamotene and (Z)-gamma-bisabolene, were also found in low quantities in the frontal gland of P. canalifrons.