Glutathione S-transferase (GST) theta 1 (GSTT1) has been regarded as one of the key enzymes involved in phase II reactions because of its unique substrate specificity. In this study, we generated mice with the disrupted Gstt1 gene (Gstt1-null mice) by gene targeting and analyzed the metabolic properties in cytosolic and in vivo studies. The resulting Gstt1-null mice failed to express the Gstt1 mRNA and GSTT1 protein by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis and two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis/mass spectrometry analysis, respectively. However, the Gstt1-null mice appeared to be normal and were fertile. In an enzymatic study using cytosolic samples from the liver and kidney, GST activity toward 1,2-epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy)propane (EPNP), dichloromethane (DCM), and 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) was markedly lower in Gstt1-null mice than in the wild-type controls, despite there being no difference in GST activity toward 1-choloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene between Gstt1-null mice and the wild-type controls. Gstt1-null mice had GST activity of only 8.7 to 42.1% of the wild-type controls to EPNP, less than 2.2% of the wild-type controls to DCM, and 13.2 to 23.9% of the wild-type controls to BCNU. Plasma BCNU concentrations after a single i.p. administration of BCNU to Gstt1-null mice were significantly higher, and there was a larger area under the curve(5-60) min (male, 2.30 times; female, 2.28 times, versus the wild-type controls) based on the results. In conclusion, Gstt1-null mice would be useful as an animal model of humans with the GSTT1-null genotype.
I hypothesize that
Plasmodium falciparum has an Achilles' heel that can be attacked with
erythritol, the well-known sweetener that is classified as generally safe. Most
organisms have in their cell membrane two types of water-channel proteins:
aquaporins to maintain hydro-homeostasis across the memb...
We systematically overexpressed 99 transcription factor genes with the nmt1 promoter and found that 64 transcription factor genes exhibited reduced fitness when ectopically expressed. Cell cycle defects were also often observed. We further investigated three uncharacterized transcription factor gene...
We employ computer algebra algorithms to prove a collection of identities
Involving Bessel functions with half-integer orders and other special
Functions. These identities appear in the famous Handbook of Mathematical
Functions, as well as in its successor, the DLMF, but their proofs were lost.
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