Biologists studying short-lived organisms have become aware of the need to recognize an explicit temporal extend of a population over a considerable time. In this article we outline the concept and the realm of populations with explicit spatial and temporary boundaries. We call such populations "temporally bounded populations". In the concept, time is of the same importance as space in terms of a dimension to which a population is restricted. Two parameters not available for populations that are only spatially defined characterise temporally bounded populations: total population size, which is the total number of individuals present within the temporal borders, and total residence time, which is the sum of the residence times of all individuals. We briefly review methods to estimate these parameters. We illustrate the concept for the large blue butterfly (Maculinea nausithous) and outline insights into ecological and conservation-relevant processes that cannot be gained without the use of the concept.
A gas of ultracold interacting quantum degenerate Fermions is considered in a
three dimensional optical lattice which is externally modulated in the fre-
quency and the amplitude. This theoretical study utilizes the Keldysh formalism
to account for the system being out of thermodynamical equilibriu...
Time-space tradeoffs for representing it to support the query that asks whether
Two given elements are in the same equivalence class. This has various
Applications including for testing whether two vertices are in the same
Component in an undirected graph or in the same strongly connecte...
We propose a new estimator
For quantum state tomography, and prove that the (always physical) estimates
Will be close to the true prepared state with high probability. We derive an
Explicit formula for evaluating how high the probability is for an arbitrary
Finite-dimensional system and explicitly g...
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