## Burns and fires from non-electric domestic appliances in low and middle income countries

Severe burn is a major public health issue in developing nations. Although burn and smoke inhalation in 2002 were documented as being responsible for over 322,000 deaths worldwide, this figure is most likely a gross underestimate. The burden of suffering from fire is exceedingly distributed among the poor. A large proportion of burns are related to the nature of domestic appliances that are used for cooking, heating, lighting or all three. We undertook a retrospective review of the literature as well as analyzing our institutional and regional experiences with injuries caused by non-electric domestic appliances. The incidence of injuries is largely associated with the use of stoves and lamps; and from kerosene or petroleum as well as butane, liquid petroleum gas and alcohol. Associated problems include appliance design and construction, fuel combustion and instability, and mechanical inefficiency. Ignorance of safe usage techniques is also contributory. Industry and government regulations and standards are either nonexistent or not adequately enforced. Solving this substantial problem will depend on improved surveillance by means of formal epidemiologic studies, and the contributions and collaboration of international governmental and nongovernmental organizations.

DOI: 10.1016/j.burns.2007.08.014
Version: za2963e q8zaf q8zbd q8zcf q8zdc q8ze7 q8zf1 q8zgb

#### Similar articles you may find interesting…

1. Gravitational-Wave by Binary OJ287 in 3.5 PN Approximation

arXiv:1305.1122 [gr-qc] 6 May 2013

We compute the gravitational radiation of the supermassive binary black hole OJ287. By fitting the data of its recent seven outbursts, we obtain the orbital Motion up to 3.5PN (Post-Newtonian) order, the energy and angular momentum Fluxes and the waveform up to the 2PN. It is found that the 1PN term...
2. Speckle Noise Reduction in Medical Ultrasound Images

arXiv:1305.1344 [cs.CV] 6 May 2013

We propose a Denoising approach which combines logarithmic transformation and a non linear Diffusion tensor. Since speckle noise is multiplicative and nonwhite process, The logarithmic transformation is a reasonable choice to convert Signaldependent or pure multiplicative noise to an additive one. T...
3. Sparsest Cut on Bounded Treewidth Graphs: Algorithms and Hardness Results

arXiv:1305.1347 [cs.DS] 6 May 2013

If the Non-Uniform Sparsest Cut problem has a $\rho$-approximation for series-parallel graphs (where $\rho \geq 1$), then the Max Cut problem has an algorithm with approximation factor arbitrarily close to $1/\rho$. Hence, even for such restricted graphs (which have treewidth 2), the Sparsest Cut pr...