Contribution of peroxisome-specific isoform of Lon protease in sorting PTS1 proteins to peroxisomes.
Using an organelle proteomics approach, we previously studied the rat peroxisome in order to characterize the proteins participating in its biogenesis. A peroxisome-specific isoform of Lon (pLon) protein was accordingly identified. However, the precise role of pLon in peroxisomes remains to be elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that pLon plays a role in processing and activating a specific regulatory protein belonging to the peroxisome targeting signal (PTS) 1-containing proteins. Proteomic analysis of proteins co-immunoprecipitated with Lon suggested that Lon interacts with PMP70 and several enzymes involved in beta-oxidation, including acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX). The processing of AOX for its activation in peroxisomes was strongly inhibited in cells expressing a dominant negative form of pLon. Furthermore, a catalase possessing a modified PTS1 sequence was misdistributed in this cell line. pLon exhibits little, if any, in vitro AOX processing activity, and does not process PTS2-containing 3-ketoacyl-coenzyme A thiolase (PTL). Therefore, pLon may specifically control, sort and process PTS1 proteins. Based on the relationship between pLon and the beta-oxidation enzymes that regulate peroxisomal morphology, the observation of enlarged peroxisomes in cells expressing recombinant pLon suggests that pLon is a critical factor determining peroxisome morphology.
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