Understanding the factors that determine the rate at which genomes generate and fix mutations provides important insights into key evolutionary mechanisms. We review our current knowledge of the rates of mutation and substitution, as well as their determinants, in RNA viruses, DNA viruses and retroviruses. We show that the high rate of nucleotide substitution in RNA viruses is matched by some DNA viruses, suggesting that evolutionary rates in viruses are explained by diverse aspects of viral biology, such as genomic architecture and replication speed, and not simply by polymerase fidelity.
We analyse inspection games with an evolutionary perspective.
In our evolutionary inspection game with a large population, each individual is
Not a rational payoff maximiser, but periodically updates his strategy if he
Perceives that other individuals' strategies are more successful than his own,
These results are in agreement
with empirical findings. The explicit comparison of the time evolution of
consumer durables with empirical investigations confirms the close relationship
between price decline and Gompertz diffusion, while the product life cycle can
be described qualitatively for a lon...
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