PATE gene clusters code for multiple, secreted TFP/Ly-6/uPAR proteins that are expressed in reproductive and neuron-rich tissues and possess neuromodulatory activity.
We report here syntenic loci in humans and mice incorporating gene clusters coding for secreted proteins each comprising 10 cysteine residues. These conform to three-fingered protein/Ly-6/urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) domains that shape three-fingered proteins (TFPs). The founding gene is PATE, expressed primarily in prostate and less in testis. We have identified additional human PATE-like genes (PATE-M, PATE-DJ, and PATE-B) that co-localize with the PATE locus, code for novel secreted PATE-like proteins, and show selective expression in prostate and/or testis. Anti-PATE-B-specific antibodies demonstrated the presence of PATE-B in the region of the sperm acrosome and at high levels on malignant prostatic epithelial cells. The syntenic mouse Pate-like locus encompasses 14 active genes coding for secreted proteins, which are all, except for Pate-P and Pate-Q, expressed primarily in prostate and/or testis. Pate-P and Pate-Q are expressed solely in placental tissue. Castration up-regulates prostate expression of mouse Pate-B and Pate-E, whereas testosterone ablates this induced expression. The sequence similarity between TFP/Ly-6/uPAR proteins that modulate activity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and the PATE (Pate)-like proteins stimulated us to see whether these proteins possess analogous activity. Pharmacological studies showed significant modulation of the nicotinic acetylcholines by the PATE-B, Pate-C, and Pate-P proteins. In concert with these findings, certain PATE (Pate)-like genes were extensively expressed in neuron-rich tissues. Taken together, our findings indicate that in addition to participation of the PATE (Pate)-like genes in functions related to fertility and reproduction, some of them likely act as important modulators of neural transmission.
Version: za2963e q8za1 q8zb7 q8zc1 q8zd6 q8ze3 q8zf5 q8zgf