State-of-the-art radiotherapy treatment delivery has changed dramatically during the past decade, moving from manual individual field setup and treatment to automated computer-controlled delivery of complex treatments, including intensity-modulated radiotherapy and other similarly complex delivery strategies. However, the quality assurance methods typically used to ensure treatment is performed precisely and correctly have not evolved in a similarly dramatic way. This paper reviews the old manual treatment process and use of record-and-verify systems, and describes differences with modern computer-controlled treatment delivery. The process and technology used for computer-controlled treatment delivery are analyzed in terms of potential (and actual) problems, as well as relevant published guidance on quality assurance. The potential for improved quality assurance for computer-controlled delivery is discussed.
We study a system of $N$ coupled quantum oscillators
Interacting with each other directly with varying coupling strengths and
Indirectly through linear couplings to a scalar massless quantum field as its
Environment. The influence of the quantum field on the system is calculated
With the use of the...
We borrow results from the area of belief update to tackle the
Problem of updating (instead of revising) answer-set programs. We prove a
Representation theorem which makes it possible to constructively define any
Operator satisfying a set of postulates derived from Katsuno and Mendelzon's
We study the space-time structure of polynomiality---one of most important
Properties which is inherent to the generalized parton distributions (GPDs). In
This connection, we re-examine the issue of the time- and normal- ordering in
The operator definition of GPDs. We demonstrate that the contributi...
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