Candida arteritis in patients who have not received organ transplants: case report and review of the literature.
Fungal arteritis is a rare entity, associated with significant morbidity and mortality, that typically involves graft arteries in solid organ transplant recipients. Here, we report the first case of Candida carotid arteritis and review 22 other cases of Candida arteritis reported since 1966 in patients who have not received transplants. Most patients had serious underlying conditions. All cases were anatomically characterized by pseudoaneurysm formation. Patients presented with fever (n=7), local pain (n=13), and an expanding pulsatile mass (n=4), with subsequent rupture and hemorrhage (n=7). Evidence of Candida colonization or infection was present in 15 patients before arteritis occurred. Treatment typically included a combined surgical and antifungal approach. The outcome was favorable in 11 patients, but follow-up was limited. A high index of suspicion, early diagnosis, and prompt antifungal and surgical treatment seem crucial to efforts to avoid life-threatening arterial rupture and hemorrhage.
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