Spontaneous cases of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection were serologically evaluated. The 192 dogs in which CDV antigen was confirmed from tonsil by immunohistological examination were 2- to 4-months old, of various breeds, and unvaccinated. The prognoses were good in 74 dogs with significantly high levels of anti-CDV passive hemolytic aggregation (PHA) titer. In the other 118 dogs with poor prognoses, anti-CDV PHA titer was not detected. Anti-CDV PHA titer had the most significant association with the prognoses of CDV infection, and could be the most reliable and useful indicator for evaluating such prognoses.