Although the concept of a phase 0 trial is a relatively new one, there has been a slowly increasing trend toward basing early clinical trial designs on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic end points that has been developing over many years. This article will review the early cancer trial methodologies and the various techniques that have been used to refine them. Several illustrative examples will be presented showing their relevance to trial designs using pharmacodynamic end points and targeted agents. Some criteria for characterizing suitable phase 0 end points are suggested. Four trial designs that are essentially developed for cytotoxic agents using the maximal tolerated dose as an end point are described. Although these trials were not designed with the use of more sophisticated pharmacodynamic end points (such as the measurement of the effect of a targeted agent on its target), they have been developed to optimize the speed with which a dose needed to achieve a particular effect can be determined and are, to this extent, relevant to the design of studies with pharmacodynamic end points.
A STIRAP-like scheme is proposed to exploit a three-photon resonance taking
place in alkaline-earth-metal ions. This scheme is designed for state transfer
between the two fine structure components of the metastable D-state which are
two excited states that can serve as optical or THz qu-bit. The ad...
We have carried out the first comprehensive
Theoretical investigation of the spectropolarimetric observational signatures
Of the structured magnetic fields. These calculations are applied to interpret
Null results of the recent magnetic surveys of massive stars. The intensity and
A diblock copolymer of monomethoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-lactide) (MePEG-PLLA)/brefeldin A (BFA) conjugate was synthesized by the reaction of carboxyl-terminated copolymer MePEG-PLLA with BFA in the presence of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and dimethylaminopyridine. The conjugat...
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