The effect of hypoxia, reoxygenation, ischemia, and reperfusion on hydraulic permeability in rat mesenteric venules.
Little is known regarding the effects of I/R on hydraulic permeability (Lp). We sought to compare the individual influences of hypoxia, ischemia, reoxygenation, and reperfusion on Lp. We hypothesized that (1) hypoxia increases Lp; (2) reoxygenation further increases Lp; (3) ischemia results in greater increases in Lp compared with hypoxia; (4) reperfusion causes additional increases in Lp compared with hypoxia, ischemia, and reoxygenation; and (5) xanthine oxidase (XO) and white blood cell adherence play important roles in hypoxia, ischemia, and reperfusion. Hydraulic permeability was measured by an in vivo microcannulation technique during hypoxia, reoxygenation, ischemia, and reperfusion in rat mesenteric postcapillary venules. Additional rats were fed a Tungsten-enriched diet to inhibit XO activity, and the studies were repeated. White blood cell adherence was also documented. Hypoxia and ischemia both increased Lp 2-fold from baseline levels (P < 0.001). Reoxygenation did not alter Lp compared with 15 min of hypoxia alone (P > 0.07). Reperfusion after hypoxia increased Lp 6-fold (P < 0.001). Reperfusion after ischemia also increased Lp 6-fold (P < 0.001). Inhibition of XO had no effect on the increase in Lp after both hypoxia and ischemia. However, inhibition of XO attenuated the 6-fold increase in Lp observed during reperfusion after both hypoxia and ischemia by approximately 50% (P < 0.001). White blood cell adherence increased during reperfusion but not hypoxia or ischemia. The complexity of I/R injury makes it a difficult clinical scenario to model for research. We have demonstrated in an in vivo model that hypoxia and ischemia increase Lp similarly, and that reperfusion has a profound deleterious effect on Lp. These changes in Lp seem to be XO and white blood cell dependent.
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