The vagueness of "tradition" and the pain and suffering of children.
The argument presented by Jeffrey Bishop that "tradition" justifies female circumcision is grounded on the assumption that reason is always situated within traditions and that traditions are the foundational source of values. I argue that the concept of tradition is inherently vague and, as such, cannot support the weight of the argument that makes it the final arbiter of moral values. The concept especially does not justify intense pain and suffering inflicted on children.
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