We describe the synthesis and biological characterization of a novel prototype, namely, silica nanoconjugates bearing a covalently linked berberine, a plant alkaloid known to have antiproliferative activity. The effect of synthesized nanoconjugates on cell proliferation, the cell cycle profile, and apoptosis in the human cervical carcinoma cell line (HeLa), human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2), and human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cell line has been studied and compared with the results obtained for free berberine. Our results show that all the nanoconjugates display higher antiproliferative activity than free berberine. The ability of these nanoconjugates to inhibit cellular proliferation is mediated by the cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Moreover, silica nanoconugates caused selective apoptotic arrest with a higher efficiency than free berberine followed by apoptotic cell death as shown by quantitative fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses. Efficiency of the nanoconjugates increases upon an increase in the linker chain length, demonstrating the distinct role of the spacer chain that conjugates nanoparticles and ligands. The actual reason to show enhanced efficiency by the nanoconjugates has not been elucidated in the present study; however, we hypothesize that an increase in local concentration due to the confinement of a ligand on the nanosurface ("dendritic" effect) might have led to the observed effect.
We show that the effect of
The Sommerfeld enhancement and the relic density constraint depend
Significantly on the nature of the force-carrier. Three cases where the
Force-carrier is a vector boson, scalar and pseudoscalar particle are
Investigated and compared with each other. The results show that...
Ansa cervicalis (ansa hypoglossi) is a peripheral nerve structure-the primary choice for laryngeal reinnervation. Because the ansa formation is quite variable in humans, it is an object of a number of proposed classifications. Two interesting cases of formation of the ansa cervicalis...
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