Multi-scale, multi-physical heart models have not yet been able to include a high degree of accuracy and resolution with respect to model detail and spatial resolution due to computational limitations of current systems. We propose a framework to compute large scale cardiac models. Decomposition of anatomical data in segments to be distributed on a parallel computer is carried out by optimal recursive bisection (ORB). The algorithm takes into account a computational load parameter which has to be adjusted according to the cell models used. The diffusion term is realized by the monodomain equations. The anatomical data-set was given by both ventricles of the Visible Female data-set in a 0.2 mm resolution. Heterogeneous anisotropy was included in the computation. Model weights as input for the decomposition and load balancing were set to (a) 1 for tissue and 0 for non-tissue elements; (b) 10 for tissue and 1 for non-tissue elements. Scaling results for 512, 1024, 2048, 4096 and 8192 computational nodes were obtained for 10 ms simulation time. The simulations were carried out on an IBM Blue Gene/L parallel computer. A 1 s simulation was then carried out on 2048 nodes for the optimal model load. Load balances did not differ significantly across computational nodes even if the number of data elements distributed to each node differed greatly. Since the ORB algorithm did not take into account computational load due to communication cycles, the speedup is close to optimal for the computation time but not optimal overall due to the communication overhead. However, the simulation times were reduced form 87 minutes on 512 to 11 minutes on 8192 nodes. This work demonstrates that it is possible to run simulations of the presented detailed cardiac model within hours for the simulation of a heart beat.
We present a compiled list of 1217 star formation rate (SFR)
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Imaging surveys and GALEX far-ultraviolet survey. We briefly discuss some basic
Scaling relations between SFR and luminosity, morphology, HI-mass, surface
Predict masses and surface compositions for these variables, and compare them
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Pulsations excited in evolutionary models of an initial mass of 40 M_\odot with
Solar metallicity of Z=0.014, and compare them to micro-vari...
We present quenched mean-field (QMF) theory for the dynamics of the
Susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic model on complex networks where
Dynamical correlations between connected vertices are taken into account by
Means of a pair approximation. We present analytical expressions for the
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