A multifrequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) investigation of Nd(3+) impurities in PbWO(4) single-crystals at the conventional microwave frequency (MF) 9.43 GHz, and at the 95, 190, and 285 GHz high frequencies was carried out. The resulting spectra are well described at all frequencies by an axial spin-Hamiltonian corresponding to an effective electron spin of one-half and to a tetragonal symmetry. For the magnetic field along the tetragonal axis, the g(parallel)-factor and the hyperfine constant A(parallel) of the lowest doublet of the ground multiplet decreases with frequency increase. For the magnetic field perpendicular to the tetragonal axis, the g(perpendicular)-factor exhibits a small azimuthal angular dependence that increases with increasing the frequency due to the S(4) site symmetry. The azimuthal angular dependence allows to clearly distinguish between different local axial symmetries. These properties are interpreted as high field/frequency (HF) effects associated with the mixing by the large Zeeman interaction of some of the upper-lying doublets of the ground multiplet into the lowest-lying doublet states. We show that from the combined analysis of the multifrequency MF- and HF-EPR spectra and of the optical data, an accurate description of the ground multiplet of the Kramers rare earth ions in solid matrices can be derived.
We develop complementary data-driven models (DDMs) to reduce the predictive error of physically-based groundwater models. Two machine learning techniques, the instance-based weighting and support vector regression, are used to build the DDMs. This approach is illustrated using two real-world case st...
We study the Rabi model composed of three qubits coupled to a harmonic
Oscillator without involving the rotating-wave approximation. We show that the
Ground state of the three-qubit Rabi model can be analytically treated by using
The transformation method, and the transformed ground state agrees wel...
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