Energetics of karate (kata and kumite techniques) in top-level athletes.
Breath-by-breath O(2) uptake (VO2, L min(-1)) and blood lactate concentration were measured before, during exercise, and recovery in six kata and six kumite karate Word Champions performing a simulated competition. VO2max, maximal anaerobic alactic, and lactic power were also assessed. The total energy cost (VO2TOT mL kg(-1) above resting) of each simulated competition was calculated and subdivided into aerobic, lactic, and alactic fractions. Results showed that (a) no differences between kata and kumite groups in VO2max, height of vertical jump, and Wingate test were found; (b) VO2TOT were 87.8 +/- 6.6 and 82.3 +/- 12.3 mL kg(-1) in kata male and female with a performance time of 138 +/- 4 and 158 +/- 14 s, respectively; 189.0 +/- 14.6 mL kg(-1) in kumite male and 155.8 +/- 38.4 mL kg(-1) in kumite female with a predetermined performance time of 240 +/- 0 and 180 +/- 0 s, respectively; (c) the metabolic power was significantly higher in kumite than in kata athletes (p < or = 0.05 in both gender); (d) aerobic and anaerobic alactic sources, in percentage of the total, were significantly different between gender and disciplines (p < 0.05), while the lactic source was similar; (e) HR ranged between 174 and 187 b min(-1) during simulated competition. In conclusion, kumite appears to require a much higher metabolic power than kata, being the energy source with the aerobic contribution predominant.
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