Live attenuated vaccines for pandemic influenza.
In this chapter, we will review the development of and clinical experience with the currently licensed seasonal live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) and preclinical studies of H5, H7, and H9 live attenuated pandemic influenza vaccine candidates. Vectored vaccine approaches will not be reviewed in this chapter. Experience with seasonal influenza vaccination has demonstrated the safety and efficacy of LAIV in both children and adults; moreover, cross-protection among antigenically distinct viruses within the same subtype may be induced by LAIV. While clinical studies and further characterization of the immunologic response to avian influenza viruses are still needed, the experience with seasonal LAIV underscores the potential of live attenuated vaccines to play an important role in the event of a pandemic.
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