Advanced glycation end products and antioxidant status in nondiabetic and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats: effects of copper treatment.
The effects of Cu(II) supplementation on glycemic parameters, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), antioxidant status (glutathione; GSH and total antioxidant capacity; TAOC) and lipid peroxidative damage (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS) were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. The study was carried out on Wistar albino rats grouped as control (n = 10), CuCl(2) treated (n = 9), STZ (n = 10) and STZ,CuCl(2) treated (n = 9). STZ was administered intraperitoneally at a single dose of 65 mg/kg and CuCl(2), 4 mg copper/kg, subcutaneously, every 2 days for 60 days. At the end of this period, glucose(mg/dl), Cu(microg/dl), TBARS(micromol/l), TAOC(mmol/l) were measured in plasma, GSH(mg/gHb) in erythrocytes and glycated hemoglobin (GHb)(%) in blood. Plasma AGE-peptides(%) were measured by HPLC flow system with spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric detectors connected on-line. Data were analyzed by the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test. In the STZ group glucose, GHb and AGE-peptide levels were all significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, and P < 0.01, respectively). CuCl(2) treated group had significantly lower glucose but significantly higher GHb, TAOC and TBARS levels than the control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.001, P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). STZ,CuCl(2) treated group had significantly higher GHb, TAOC and TBARS levels compared with the control group (P < 0.001, P < 0.05 and P < 0.05, respectively); but only TAOC level was significantly higher than the STZ group (P < 0.01). This experimental study provides evidence that copper intake increases total antioxidant capacity in both nondiabetic and diabetic states. However despite the potentiated antioxidant defence, lipid peroxidation and glycation enhancing effects of CuCl(2) are evident under nondiabetic conditions.
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