Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) involving ultrasound for waste water treatment: A review with emphasis on cost estimation
Two things are needed for any technology to be suitable for use in the industry, viz. 1. Technical feasibility and 2. Economical feasibility. The use of ultrasound for waste water treatment has been shown to be technically feasible by numerous reports in the literature over the years. But there are hardly any exhaustive reports which address the issue of economical feasibility of the use of ultrasound for waste water treatment on industrial scale. Hence an attempt was made to estimate the cost for the waste water treatment using ultrasound. The costs have been calculated for 1000L/min capacity treatment plant. The costs were calculated based upon the rate constants for pollutant degradation. The pollutants considered were phenol, trichloroethylene (TCE) and reactive azo dyes. Time required for ninety percent degradation of pollutant was taken as the residence time. The amount of energy required to achieve the target degradation was calculated from the energy density (watt/ml) used in the treatability study. The cost of treatment was calculated by considering capital cost and operating cost involved for the waste water treatment. Quotations were invited from vendors to ascertain the capital cost of equipments involved and operating costs were calculated based on annual energy usage. The cost was expressed in dollars per 1000gallons of waste water treated. These treatment costs were compared with other established Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) technologies. The cost of waste water treatment for phenol was in the range of $89 per 1000gallons for UV/US/O"3 to $15,536 per 1000gallons for US alone. These costs for TCE were in the range of $25 per 1000gallons to $91 for US+UV treatment and US alone, respectively. The cost of waste water treatment for reactive azo dyes was in the range of $65 per 1000gallon for US+UV+H"2O"2 to $14,203 per 1000gallon for US alone. This study should help in quantifying the economics of waste water treatment using ultrasound on industrial scale. We strongly believe that this study will immensely help the researchers working in the area of applications of ultrasound for waste water treatment in terms of where the technology stands today as compared to other available commercial AOP technologies. This will also help them think for different ways to improve the efficiency of using ultrasound or search for other ways of generating cavitation which may be more efficient and help reduce the cost of treatment in future.
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