Prior to the 1920s, the northeast Arctic (NA) cod were caught at spawning grounds ranging from the southernmost to the northernmost parts of the Norwegian coast, but have for the last 50 yr mainly been caught around the Lofoten archipelago and northwards. The NA cod have their feeding and nursery grounds in the Barents Sea, and migrate south towards the Norwegian coast in the winter to spawn. This study uses commercial fisheries' data from landing ports along the entire Norwegian coast during the period 1866-1969 as evidence of long-term truncation and northerly shift of spawning grounds. Nearly all spawning grounds south of Lofoten have been abandoned, while an increasing proportion of the spawning stock only uses the northernmost areas of the Norwegian coast, Troms and Finnmark. The truncation can hardly be attributed to long-term climatic variations, but may result from an intensive size-selective trawl fishery in the Barents Sea causing a sudden increase in fishing mortality, probably altering the size structure and migratory capacity of the stock.
We investigate how a finite detection efficiency affects three
Popular multiplicity distributions, namely the Poisson, the Binomial and the
Negative Binomial distributions. We found that a constant detection efficiency
Does not change the characteristic of a distribution, while a variable
The effect of anthrapyridone compound CO1 retaining cytotoxic activity against multidrug resistant (MDR) tumour cells on inducing cell death of the sensitive leukaemia HL60 cell line and its MDR sublines (HL60/VINC and HL60/DOX) was examined.
The effects of CO1 and th...
We found that sulfur dioxide oxidation catalyzed by natural transition metal ions is the dominant in-cloud oxidation pathway. The pathway was observed to occur primarily on coarse mineral dust, so the sulfate produced will have a short lifetime and little direct or indirect climatic effect. Taking t...
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