BACKGROUND: Early experience with intestinal and multivisceral transplantation was plagued with high risk of rejection and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD). To improve outcome, innovative management and immunosuppressant strategies were sequentially evolved. METHODS: With initiation of the program in 1990, serial monitoring of Epstein-Barr-Viral load was introduced in 1994 with adoption of preemptive antiviral therapy. In 1995, cyclophosphamide or daclizumab induction was added to the tacrolimus-steroid-based multiple drug immunosuppressions. Such a conventional approach was replaced in 2001 with a novel immunosuppressive protocol consisting of recipient pretreatment with a single dose of rabbit antithymocyte globulin or alemtuzumab and posttransplant tacrolimus monotherapy. RESULTS: With a total of 395 consecutive primary recipients, de novo malignancy(s) developed in 61 (15%) patients, with PTLD in 52 (13%), and nonlymphoid cancer (NLC) in 13 (3.2%). Malignancy was donor driven in 3 (4.6%) recipients and associated with graft-versus-host disease in 7 (11.4%). Children were at a significantly higher risk (P<0.001) of PTLD, and adults were more vulnerable (P=0.01) to NLC. With multivariate analyses, type of immunosuppression, recipient age, splenectomy, and treatment of rejection were significant PTLD risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Despite pretransplant lymphoid depletion, preemptive antiviral therapy and minimization of posttransplant immunosuppression significantly reduced PTLD morbidity (P=0.0001) and mortality (P=0.001) with no impact on NLC. Patient survival was also improved (P=0.0001) with 91% at 1 year and 75% at 5 years.
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Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in childhood, typically presents as an acute self-limiting illness. However, secondary ITP is often a chronic disorder due to an underlying disease. Combined cytopenias in childhood, that is, secondary ITP occurring with auto-immune hemolytic ane...
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