Acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) can be used in acute lung injury (ALI) patients who refuse blood transfusions. To investigate the effects of hemodilution on the acute inflammatory response in lung injury, the authors studied the effects of ANH in a rat model of bleomycin-induced lung injury. Bleomycin (10 mg/kg) was used to induce lung injury in 2 groups of rats. The treatment groups included a lung injury group with hemodilution (HI), a lung injury group without hemodilution (NHI), and a control group. Hemodilution was performed by removing blood and substituting the same amount of hydroxyethyl starch solution targeted to 7.0 g/dL via the right and left internal jugular veins. At day 3 after bleomycin instillation, systemic hemoglobin concentration was 9.5 +/- 1.1 g/dL. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, and interleukin-6 levels measured in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), blood, and lung tissue were not significantly different between the HI and NHI groups 3 days after lung injury. Microscopic findings showed fibrosis and inflammation in the HI and NHI groups 28 days after lung injury, but no significant differences were found between the 2 groups. Hemodilution after bleomycin administration did not further affect the acute inflammatory response or lung injury.
We analyze possible nonlinear exciton-exciton correlation effects in the
Optical response of semiconductors by using a time-dependent density-functional
Theory (TDDFT) approach. For this purpose, we derive the nonlinear
(third-order) TDDFT equation for the excitonic polarization. In this equation,
It is unclear how timing of exercise relative to meal ingestion influences substrate balance and metabolic responses. The present study aimed to compare the effects of exercise performed before or after breakfast on fat balance and postprandial metabolism. A total of ten sedentary ov...
The nonlinear optical and optoelectronic properties of graphene with the
emphasis on the processes of harmonic generation, frequency mixing, photon drag
and photogalvanic effects as well as generation of photocurrents due to
coherent interference effects, are reviewed. The article presents the
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