A growing body of literature supports the relationship of maternal inflammation with preterm birth and adverse neonatal outcomes, including infection and central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. Mediators of inflammation, most notably proinflammatory cytokines, have been implicated as having an association with and perhaps playing a causal role in the pathogenesis, leading to adverse neonatal outcomes. Even though the association of cytokines with early adverse neonatal outcomes has been actively pursued as a line of research, there has been little integration of diverse findings across studies. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review was to appraise and classify empirical evidence from human studies for the association of cytokine levels in blood (serum, plasma, or cells; maternal, cord, or neonatal) with two adverse early outcomes in preterm infants: early infection and increased risk of neurologic damage. The review revealed that the proinflammatory cytokines most frequently linked with sepsis are in the interleukin (IL) 1 family as well as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and IL-6. The proinflammatory cytokines most frequently linked to neurologic insult in the reviewed studies were IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8. In all cases where IL-1beta was studied, the levels were increased when there was neurologic insult. A better understanding of the relationship of these inflammatory substances with these adverse conditions is needed for the future development of maternal and neonatal biobehavioral nursing research.
Consider the weighted unanchored Sobolev spaces of high smoothness and derive
An upper bound on the mean square worst-case error for digitally shifted higher
Order digital nets. Employing our obtained bound as a quality criterion, we
Prove that the component-by-component construction can be made...
IMPORTANCE Despite increasing concerns regarding the cost of health care, the consideration of costs in the development of clinical guidance documents by physician specialty societies has received little analysis. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the approach to consideration of cost in publicl...
We study the entanglement entropy of a region of length 2L with the remainder
Of an infinite one dimensional gapless quantum system in the case where the
Region is centered on a quantum impurity. The coupling to this impurity is not
Scale invariant, and the physics involves a crossover between weak...
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