Myosin 1G is an abundant class I myosin in lymphocytes whose localization at the plasma membrane depends on its ancient divergent pleckstrin homology (PH) domain (Myo1PH).
Class I myosins, which link F-actin to membrane, are largely undefined in lymphocytes. Mass spectrometric analysis of lymphocytes identified two short tail forms: (Myo1G and Myo1C) and one long tail (Myo1F). We investigated Myo1G, the most abundant in T-lymphocytes, and compared key findings with Myo1C and Myo1F. Myo1G localizes to the plasma membrane and associates in an ATP-releasable manner to the actin-containing insoluble pellet. The IQ+tail region of Myo1G (Myo1C and Myo1F) is sufficient for membrane localization, but membrane localization is augmented by the motor domain. The minimal region lacks IQ motifs but includes: 1) a PH-like domain; 2) a "Pre-PH" region; and 3) a "Post-PH" region. The Pre-PH predicted alpha helices may contribute electrostatically, because two conserved basic residues on one face are required for optimal membrane localization. Our sequence analysis characterizes the divergent PH domain family, Myo1PH, present also in long tail myosins, in eukaryotic proteins unrelated to myosins, and in a probable ancestral protein in prokaryotes. The Myo1G Myo1PH domain utilizes the classic lipid binding site for membrane association, because mutating either of two basic residues in the "signature motif" destroys membrane localization. Mutation of each basic residue of the Myo1G Myo1PH domain reveals another critical basic residue in the beta3 strand, which is shared only by Myo1D. Myo1G differs from Myo1C in its phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate dependence for membrane association, because membrane localization of phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase releases Myo1C from the membrane but not Myo1G. Thus Myo1PH domains likely play universal roles in myosin I membrane association, but different isoforms have diverged in their binding specificity.
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