There is some controversy regarding the choice of prosthetic valves in patients with heart disease and concomitant end-stage renal disease requiring chronic dialysis. Dialysis patients tend to have a short life expectancy. In Japan, the 1-year survival of the dialysis patients was 80% in the 1980s, but exceeds 85% in the 2000s. The 5-year survival has been 54%-60% for the past 20 years. In addition, the 10-year and 15-year survivals have been 35%-42% and 23%-31%, respectively. However, in the United States, the 5-year survival had only improved to 35% among patients who started dialysis between 1996 and 2000, and the life expectancies of chronic dialysis patients in their sixth, seventh and eighth decades is 5.3-6.2 years, 3.8-4.5 years, and 2.7-3.2 years, respectively. The life expectancy of dialysis patients in Japan is thus better than that of patients in the United States. Some surgeons prefer to use bioprosthetic valves because of a high rate of hemorrhagic complications in dialysis patients. They are hesitant to use anticoagulation therapy in dialysis patients with mechanical valves. Others prefer mechanical valves because of the potential for early structural dysfunction of bioprosthetic valves implanted in the dialysis patients with abnormal calcium metabolism, which can cause calcium deposition on the bioprosthetic valves during the early postoperative period. The life expectancy of dialysis patients in Japan is relatively high. The potential risk of early calcification of bioprosthetic valves should be taken into account when choosing prosthetic heart valves for these patients in Japan.
We investigate the problem of predicting risk-of-readmission as a
Supervised learning problem, using a multi-layer classification approach.
Earlier contributions inadequately attempted to assess a risk value for 30 day
Readmission by building a direct predictive model as opposed to our approach.
The recognition that poor cardiac performance is not the sole determinant of exercise intolerance in CHF patients has altered the target of exercise training. Endothelial dysfunction impairs exercise-induced vasodilation, thereby limiting oxygen supply to working muscles and increasi...
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