Previously, we showed that basal activity of nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic GMP (cGMP)/protein kinase G (PKG) signaling pathway protects against spontaneous apoptosis and confers resistance to cisplatin-induced apoptosis in human ovarian cancer cells. The present study determines whether basal PKG kinase activity regulates Src family kinase (SFK) activity and proliferation in these cells. PKG-Ialpha was identified as predominant isoform in both OV2008 (cisplatin-sensitive, wild-type p53) and A2780cp (cisplatin-resistant, mutated p53) ovarian cancer cells. In both cell lines, ODQ (inhibitor of endogenous NO-induced cGMP biosynthesis), DT-2 (highly specific inhibitor of PKG-Ialpha kinase activity), and PKG-Ialpha knockdown (using small interfering RNA) caused concentration-dependent inhibition of DNA synthesis (assessed by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation), indicating an important role of basal cGMP/PKG-Ialpha kinase activity in promoting cell proliferation. DNA synthesis in OV2008 cells was dependent on SFK activity, determined using highly selective SFK inhibitor, 4-(4'-phenoxyanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline (SKI-1). Studies using DT-2 and PKG-Ialpha small interfering RNA revealed that SFK activity was dependent on PKG-Ialpha kinase activity. Furthermore, SFK activity contributed to endogenous tyrosine phosphorylation of PKG-Ialpha in OV2008 and A2780cp cells. In vitro coincubation of recombinant human c-Src and PKG-Ialpha resulted in c-Src-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of PKG-Ialpha and enhanced c-Src autophosphorylation/activation, suggesting that human c-Src directly tyrosine phosphorylates PKG-Ialpha and the c-Src/PKG-Ialpha interaction enhances Src kinase activity. Epidermal growth factor-induced stimulation of SFK activity in OV2008 cells increased PKG-Ialpha kinase activity (indicated by Ser(239) phosphorylation of the PKG substrate vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein), which was blocked by both SKI-1 and SU6656. The data suggest an important role of Src/PKG-Ialpha interaction in promoting DNA synthesis/cell proliferation in human ovarian cancer cells. The NO/cGMP/PKG-Ialpha signaling pathway may provide a novel therapeutic target for disrupting ovarian cancer cell proliferation.
We introduce a new notion of G-expectation-weighted Sobolev spaces, or in
Short, G-Sobolev spaces, and prove that a backward SDEs driven by G-Brownian
Motion are in fact path dependent PDEs in the corresponding G-Sobolev spaces.
For the linear case of G corresponding the classical Wiener probability...
We study for the first time the X-ray emission of HM1 and
IC2944/2948. Low-mass, pre-main-sequence objects with an age of a few Myr are
Detected, as well as a few background or foreground objects. Most massive stars
In both clusters display the usual high-energy properties of that type of
A list of recommendations was formulated including more general issues on the scientific methodology and statistical approach. Standards and statements are available, each depending on the type of study that is being reported: the CONSORT statement for the Randomised Controlled Trials, the TREND sta...
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