PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to investigate whether individual differences in eye surface area are related to the rate of spontaneous eye blinking (SB) in young infants. Rate of SB was also compared with the rate of gaze shifts. METHODS: Forty-four 4-month-old infants were observed under controlled conditions for 4 to 6 min. SB, eye surface area, gaze shifts, and various background variables were measured. RESULTS: Individual differences in the rate of SB and in eye surface area were wide. Neither the eye surface area nor the rate of gaze shifting was related to the rate of SB in young infants. However, when SB do occur, they are more likely to coincide with a shift in gaze than immediately precede or follow a shift in gaze. CONCLUSIONS: Eye surface area does not explain individual differences in the rate of SB in infancy. This and other recent work suggests that central factors may play a more prominent role in the mechanisms of SB early in human development than previously reported and that the mechanisms regulating the rate of SB seem to be developmentally continuous with those of adults. To the extent that the rate and timing of SB reflects developing neurological systems, SB may be useful clinically.
We unravel that HypT is activated by methionine oxidation to methionine sulfoxide. Interestingly, so far only inactivation of cellular proteins by methionine oxidation has been reported. Mutational analysis revealed three methionines that are essential to confer HOCl resistance. Their simultaneous s...
I show that random distributions of vortex-antivortex pairs (rather than of
individual vortices) lead to scaling of typical winding numbers W trapped
inside a loop of circumference C with the square root of C when the expected
winding numbers are large. Such scaling is consistent with the Kibble-Zur...
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