Baculovirus as vaccine vectors.
Application of viral vectors derived from human viruses to mediate immune response in animals and humans has been greatly hampered by the problems associated with pre-existing immunity and associated toxicities. Among few non-human viral vectors, baculovirus has now evolved as a novel tool for vaccine vector development. With broad tissue tropism and expanded bio-safety profile suitably supplemented with intrinsic immunostimulatory properties, baculovirus has now attained a niche position in the arena of vaccine development. Recombinant envelope-modified baculovirus equipped with novel shuttle promoters for in vivo transduction has shown promising results in several animal models. Baculovirus mediated induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses through intranasal or oral administration has now open an entirely new way for the development of new generation vaccines. Gaining additional insight into the baculovirus biology and its interaction with non-native hosts will certainly promote this human-friendly virus as a potential vector for clinical applications.
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