The monomolecular organisation of the natural asymmetric and symmetric bolaamphiphilic (archaebacterial tetraether lipids) was studied using a combination of Langmuir film balance, ellipsometry, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Monolayer films were transferred onto silicon wafer substrates. After transfer of the lipids onto several kinds of silicon wafer substrates (hydrophobic, hydrophilic, and amino-silanised), the monolayer films were further investigated by ellipsometry and AFM in order to determined whether bolaamphiphiles are oriented differently at the water-air interface, including ''horseshoe'' and ''upright'' configurations. The thickness of the monolayer film, which was determined by ellipsometry, represents a combined mean value of the domains. The surface morphology, which was evaluated by AFM showed that in all films, the domains were arranged in small domains or the most homogeneous organisation, depending on the properties of the wafer silicon substrates. From all films, the hydrophobically transferred lipids showed the most homogeneous organisation on the substrates. After transfer onto hydrophilic and amino-silanised surfaces, the lipids were arranged in small islands on the substrates.
Properties of the phase space of the standard maps with memory obtained from
the differential equations with the Riemann-Liouville and Caputo derivatives
are considered. Properties of the attractors which these fractional dynamical
systems demonstrate are different from properties of the regular an...
We investigate SL(3,C) Chern-Simons theory as a
Higher-spin context in which these singularities might get resolved. As in the
Case of higher spin black holes in AdS_3, the solutions are invariantly
Characterized by their holonomies. We show that the dS_3 quotient singularity
Can be de-singularized...
We generalize this method to the setup of pursuing sparse representations over a pre-fixed dictionary. At each iteration, the proposed algorithm first automatically selects an atom from the dictionary and adds it to a working set, and then optimally adjusts the aggregation weights of the atoms in th...
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