Congenital cytomegalovirus is the most common cause of congenital infection in developed countries and a major etiology for neurological disability in children. In many countries, there is low awareness of the importance of this virus as a cause of neurological disorders.
We reviewed current knowledge regarding neurological disorders associated to congenital cytomegalovirus infection and analysed the epidemiology of this infection in Latin American countries.
The incidence of congenital cytomegalovirus infection reported from Latin American countries ranges from 0 to 6.8% in different settings. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection is a common cause of hearing deficits and mental impairment in children. However, the impact of this infection as a cause of neurological disorders in Latin American countries remains poorly documented.
Actions are needed to increase knowledge regarding the frequency and impact of congenital cytomegalovirus infection on Latin American children, as well as to increase awareness of the general population and the medical community regarding the need to identify infants infected in utero by this virus and to carefully evaluate their neurological development throughout childhood.