Evaluation of intraoperative brain shift using an ultrasound-linked navigation system for brain tumor surgery.
Image-guided neurosurgery using navigation systems is an essential tool to increase accuracy in brain tumor surgery. However, brain shift during surgery has remained problematic. The present study evaluated the utility of a new ultrasound (US)-linked navigation system for brain tumor surgery in 64 patients with intracranial tumors. The navigation system consisted of a StealthStation navigation system, a SonoNav system, and a standard US scanner. This system determines the orientation of the US images and reformats the images from preoperative computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to match the US images. The system was used intraoperatively to measure brain shift several times, using the results to guide tumor resection. US-linked navigation provided information regarding brain shift, and extent of tumor resection during surgery. Evaluation of brain shift was easily achieved in all patients, without using intraoperative CT or MR imaging. Accurate information regarding the true anatomical configuration of the patient could be obtained in all phases of the operation. Magnitude of brain shift increased progressively from pre- to post-resection and depended on the type of cranial structure. Integration of the US scanner with the navigation system allowed comparisons between the intraoperative US and preoperative images, thus improving interpretation of US images. The system also improved the rate of tumor resection by facilitating the detection of remnant tumor tissue. This US-linked navigation system provides information on brain shift, and improves the accuracy and utility of image-guided surgery.