In order to study the infection dynamics of 2 renal myxozoans, Zschokkella hildae Auerbach, 1910 and Gadimyxa atlantica Køie, Karlsbakk and Nylund, 2007 in cultured Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L. aged 3-19 months, a specific single-round PCR assay and a double-label in situ hybridization protocol were developed. The results demonstrated that the 2 myxozoans show spatial separation of their development with regard to spore formation inside the renal tubules versus the collecting ducts and ureters, as well as temporal separation with Z. hildae proliferating and developing spores only once the G. atlantica infection decreases, despite the presence of both myxozoans in the smallest fry studied. These results strongly suggest within-host competition of the 2 myxozoans with potential suppression of Z. hildae by G. atlantica until G. morhua acquires immunity against G. atlantica. The quantification of the G. atlantica infection inside the renal tubules before and after a 29-day experimental growth performance study using fry from hatcheries with differing filtration systems showed that the intensity of infection with G. atlantica seems to be controlled if prolonged exposure to the myxozoan transmission stages takes place from hatching onwards. Surprisingly, growth rates in the trial were inversely affected suggesting that G. atlantica does not negatively influence cod fry growth performance.
We consider a mathematical
Model of two diseases spreading through a single population, where infection
With one disease is dependent on prior infection with the other. We solve
Exactly for the sizes of the outbreaks of both diseases in the limit of large
Population size, along with the complete pha...
We propose an alternative scheme to implement the quantum state transfer
Between two three-level atoms based on the invariant-based inverse engineering
In cavity quantum electronic dynamics (QED) system. The quantum information can
Be ultrafast transferred between the atoms by taking advantage of th...
We have identified a merging galaxy cluster with evidence of two distinct
Sub-clusters. The X-ray and optical data suggest that the subclusters are
Moving away from each other after closest approach. This cluster merger was
Discovered from observations of the well localized short-duration gamma-ray...
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