Role of P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein-1 in the brain penetration and brain pharmacodynamic activity of the novel phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor GDC-0941.
2-(1H-Indazol-4-yl)-6-(4-methanesulfonyl-piperazin-1-ylmethyl)-4-morpholin-4-yl-thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidine (GDC-0941) is a novel small molecule inhibitor of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway currently evaluated in the clinic as an anticancer agent. The objectives of this study were to determine in vitro whether GDC-0941 was a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1) and to investigate the impact of these transporters on the pharmacokinetics, brain penetration, and activity of GDC-0941 in FVBn mice (wild-type) and Mdr1a/b(-/-), Bcrp1(-/-), and Mdr1a/b(-/-)/Bcrp1(-/-) knockout mice. Studies with Madin-Darby canine kidney cells transfected with P-gp or Bcrp1 established that this compound was a substrate of both transporters. After administrations to mice, GDC-0941 brain-to-plasma ratio ranged from 0.02 to 0.06 in the wild-type and Bcrp1(-/-) mice and was modestly higher in the Mdr1a/b(-/-) mice, ranging from 0.08 to 0.11. In contrast, GDC-0941 brain-to-plasma ratio in Mdr1a/b(-/-)/Bcrp1(-/-) triple knockout mice was 30-fold higher than in the wild-type mice. The plasma clearance of GDC-0941 was similar in wild-type and all knockout mice, ranging from 15 to 25 ml/(min . kg) in the wild-type mice and from 18 to 35 ml/(min . kg) in the knockout mice. Exposure after oral administration was comparable in the four strains of mice. The PI3K pathway was markedly inhibited in the brain of Mdr1a/b(-/-)/Bcrp1(-/-) mice for up to 6 h postdose, as evidenced by a 60% suppression of the phosphorylated Akt signal, whereas no inhibition was detected in the brain of wild-type mice. The concerted effects of P-gp and Bcrp1 in restricting GDC-0941 access and pathway modulation in mouse brain may have implications for the treatment of patients with brain tumors.