To examine whether dietary glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) had an effect on the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and whether the effects were dependent on the diabetes status in the Cuban American population.
A case–control, single-time-point study.
A total of 324 middle-aged Cuban American adults had completed data on fasting blood lipids, physical activity level and usual dietary intake using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Published GI values were assigned to food items and average dietary GI and GL were calculated per participant.
Subjects without type 2 diabetes (T2D) were 3.3 times more likely to be in the recommended, highest high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol category if they were in the second dietary GL tertile as compared with those in the first dietary GL tertile (P = 0.042, 95% confidence interval = 1.94, 10.78).
The results of the present study suggest that in this sample of Cuban Americans a high GI or GL diet do not adversely affects blood lipids, especially among subjects without T2D.