This study examined the characteristics of the dental X-ray fluoroscopic equipment, 'DreamRay 60F', which was recently developed in Korea. The output linearity, output reproducibility, half-value layer (HVL), leakage radiation and scattered radiation were measured using an ionisation chamber. The surface dose equivalent rate and estimated dose equivalent of the operator were also calculated. The output linearity was 0.0015-0.0175 and the coefficient of variation for the output reproducibility was 0.0013-0.0074. The experimental HVL was 2.1 mm Al, and the leakage dose rate at 100 cm from the X-ray focus ranged from 2.70 to 19.66 microGy h (-1) depending on the direction. The scattered radiation doses differed significantly (1.7-16.8 times) depending on the distance and direction. If an operator is exposed for 10 min per procedure, 5 procedures a day at 5 days a week, he/she sitting at a 90 degrees direction will receive an annual dose equivalent of 13.0 mSv (at 30 cm) and 63.7 mSv (at 50 cm) in the trunk and face surface, respectively.
We present a cosmological adaptive mesh
Refinement simulation of an overdense region that forms a few 10^9 Msun dark
Matter halos and over 13,000 Population III stars by redshift 15. We find that
Most halos do not form Population III stars until they reach Mvir ~ 10^7 Msun
Because this biased region...
There was no significant difference in pain intensity ratings when acidic saline injections were compared with regular saline injections. Pain area drawings were, however, significantly larger in response to the first injection of acidic saline than to the second injection of acidic saline or to eit...
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