In 2005, the American Academy of Neurology and the Child Neurology Society published a practice parameter, based primarily on studies that involved 6 to 18 months of treatment, indicating that prednisone has a beneficial effect on muscle strength and function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and recommended that corticosteroids be offered (prednisone 0.75 mg/kg/d and deflazacort 0.9 mg/kg/d) as treatment. Recent reports emphasize that longer term treatment with corticosteroids (greater than 3 years) produces important sustained benefits in neuromuscular function without causing major side effects. This review highlights these reports and indicates that long-term corticosteroid therapy (1) prolongs ambulation by 2 to 5 years, (2) reduces the need for spinal stabilization surgery, (3) improves cardiopulmonary function, (4) delays the need for noninvasive nasal ventilation, and (5) increases survival and the quality of life of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Educational, vocational, and other social counseling is now a vital part of management for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
We indentified 24 eligible studies providing data on at least one of the outcomes. Progression rates of AKs to SCC ranged from 0% to 0.075%/lesion/year, with a risk of up to 0.53% per lesion when looking at participants with prior history of NMSC. Rates of regression of single lesions ranged between...
We study the effects of such gravity or Planck scale physics on
Neutrino masses and mixings by introducing explict D-parity breaking Planck
Scale suppressed higher dimensional operators. Although such Planck scale
Suppressd operators have dimension at least six in generic LRSM, dimension five
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