Disturbances in bone and mineral metabolism in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) affect not only the bone diseases but also other organ disorders in the whole body and deteriorate the survival of these patients. The term CKD-Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD) has been established describing a broader clinical syndrome that develops as a systemic disorder of mineral and bone metabolism due to CKD. Vascular calcification and secondary hyperparathyroidism are major diseases in CKD-MBD.
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