Cough can be a biomarker in case of respiratory diseases. By monitoring and analyzing cough sounds through automatic devices, the farmer can obtain an early warning about a developing outbreak of respiratory infections. Cough sounds can be characterized by particular acoustic features (amplitude, frequency and duration) that are obtained by sound recording, labeling and analytic procedures. Based on these features, it might be possible to develop an automated cough recognition system. The aim of the study described in this paper is to investigate whether it is possible to discriminate cough sounds from other frequently occurring sounds in youngstock stables. Nasal swabs and blood were taken to identify the microbiological agents responsible for the respiratory problems. The collected cough sounds were compared to metal rack sounds, which are very common sounds in cattle farming, to identify acoustic differences between them. Results show that the length of cough sounds was significantly different from metal rack sounds (0.34 versus 0.37s, P<0.05). Also, the analysis of amplitude and fundamental frequency showed significant differences between both types of sounds (resp. 0.21 and 0.18; 1326 and 3868HZ). This indicates that it is possible discriminate cough sounds from other sounds and that cough sound can be used as a non-invasively diagnostic tool for respiratory diseases in youngstock groups.
Adjuvant therapy with induction BCG followed by maintenance BCG is the appropriate standard of care for patients with resected NMIBC at high risk of recurrence. Further trials are warranted to test the effects of adding chemotherapy to BCG in patients with Ta or T1 disease, but not in those with Tis...
We demonstrate consistency of the general principles of
Competition with thermodynamic description, review and analyse the related
Entropy concepts and introduce the corresponding competitive H-theorem. A
Competitive system can be characterised by a thermodynamic quantity -
Competitive potential ---...
We explain this fact in simplified examples on 1+1
Dimensional space-time, namely in so-called integrable models. We give a
Characterization of local operators by means of the analyticity properties of
Their coefficients in a certain series expansion. This also allows us to
Explicitly construct exam...
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