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Pulmonary nocardiosis developed in a hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient with bronchiolitis obliterans.

Internal Medicine (Tokyo, 1992) 49(14):1441 (2010) PMID 20647664

The chronic graft-versus-host disease often requires unceasing immunosuppressive therapy (IST), which increases a risk of infectious complications in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients. We report an adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma case who developed pulmonary nocardiosis, a rare pulmonary complication, after allogeneic HSCT despite administration of the prophylactic trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/STX). The inhaled corticosteroid in addition to systemic IST had been started for bronchiolitis obliterance 4 months prior to nocardiosis development. The patient was successfully treated with an increased dose of TMP/STX combined with meropenem. Transplantation physicians should keep this rare pulmonary complication in mind during sustained IST.

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