Analyses of microvascular networks with traditional tracer filling techniques suggest that the blood and lymphatic systems are distinct without direct communications, yet involvement of common growth factors during angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis suggest that interactions at the capillary level are possible. To investigate the structural basis for lymphatic/blood endothelial cell connections during normal physiological growth, the objective of this study was to characterize the spatial relations between lymphatic and blood capillaries in adult rat mesenteric tissue. Using immunohistochemical methods, adult male Wistar rat mesenteric tissues were labeled with antibodies against PECAM (an endothelial marker) and LYVE-1, Prox-1, or Podoplanin (lymphatic endothelial markers) or NG2 (a pericyte marker). Positive PECAM labeling identified apparent lymphatic/blood endothelial cell connections at the capillary level characterized by direct contact or direct alignment with one another. In PECAM labeled networks, a subset of the lymphatic and blood capillary blind ends were connected with each other. Intravital imaging of FITC-Albumin injected through the femoral vein did not identify lymphatic vessels. At contact sites, lymphatic endothelial markers did not extend along blood capillary segments. However, PECAM positive lymphatic sprouts, structurally similar to blood capillary sprouts, lacked observable lymphatic marker labeling. These observations suggest that nonlumenal lymphatic/blood endothelial cell interactions exist in unstimulated adult microvascular networks and highlight the potential for lymphatic/blood endothelial cell plasticity.
Elevated Notch signaling downstream of perturbed VEGF signaling contributes to aberrant flt-1(-/-) blood vessel formation. Notch signaling may be dispensable for blood vessel formation when VEGF signaling is below a critical threshold....
This paper presents a software platform, named BiNS2, able to simulate
diffusion-based molecular communications with drift inside blood vessels. The
contribution of the paper is twofold. First a detailed description of the
simulator is given, under the software engineering point of view, by
We propose a modified Ehrenfest scheme
To study the path interference of incoherent motions in multi-level quantum
Systems. The detailed balance is enforced by considering the quantum correction
Of two-time correction functions based on second order master (rate) equations.
With the modified Ehrenfe...
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