Prior analyses of the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (Piper et al., 2004) implicated 4 subscales as primary dependence motives (PDM) indexing the core features of tobacco dependence, with the remaining subscales reflecting secondary dependence motives (SDM; Piper et al., 2008). The current study extended this work by examining the correlates of PDM, SDM, their subscales, and other indicators of dependence in an operant self-administration paradigm. Smokers (N = 58) worked for cigarette puffs under differing fixed ratio schedules. Analyses focused on predicting self-administration under conditions of minimal constraint on tobacco access and on withdrawal and craving under conditions of severe constraint. Results support a 2-factor model of dependence, with the PDM factor showing relatively stronger relations with tobacco self-administration and the SDM factor showing relatively stronger relations with withdrawal symptomatology and distress-related craving. The PDM appears to index core features of tobacco dependence, but susceptibility to deprivation-contingent distress and craving may be better indexed by SDM.
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