Nucleotide-binding domain of phosphoglycerate kinase 1 reduces tumor growth by suppressing COX-2 expression.
Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK-1) is a multifunctional protein that is involved in the glycolytic pathway and the generation of the angiogenesis inhibitor angiostatin. In a previous study, we showed that the overexpression of full-length PGK-1 in Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC-1) can reduce tumor growth in vivo by downregulation of COX-2 expression. Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 has two functional domains: a catalytic domain (CD); and a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). To identify the functional domain of PGK-1 responsible for its antitumor effects, we evaluated the tumorigenicity of LLC-1 cells overexpressing full-length PGK-1 (LLC-1/PGK), CD (LLC-1/CD), and NBD (LLC-1/NBD). Although no difference in tumor cell growth was observed in vitro, the tumor invasiveness was reduced in the LLC-1/PGK, LLC-1/CD, and LLC-1/NBD cells compared to parental LLC-1 cells in vivo. In addition, in vivo tumor growth retardation by LLC-1/CD and LLC-1/NBD cells was observed, similar to that by LLC-1/PGK cells. However, the reduced stability of COX-2 mRNA and downregulation of the COX-2 protein and its metabolite, prostaglandin E2, was only found in LLC-1/PGK and LLC-1/NBD cells. Low levels of COX-2 were also observed in the tumor mass formed by the modified cells when injected into mice. The results indicate that COX-2 suppression by PGK-1 is independent of its catalytic activity. COX-2 targeting by PGK-1 can be attributed to its NBD and is probably a result of the destabilization of COX-2 gene transcripts brought about by the mRNA-binding property of PGK-1. © 2010 Japanese Cancer Association.
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