One of the most popular methods to prepare tryptic peptides for bottom-up proteomic analysis is in-gel digestion. To date, there have been few studies comparing various digestion methods. In this study, we compare the efficiency of several popular in-gel digestion methods, along with new technologies that may improve digestion efficiency, using a human epidermoid carcinoma cell lysate protein standard. The efficiency of each protocol was based on the average number of proteins identified and their respective sequence coverage and relative quantitation using spectral counting. The importance of this study lies in its comparison of pre-existing in-gel digestion methods with those that use newly developed technologies that may introduce the potential for a more cost-effective digestion, higher protein yield, and an overall reduction in processing time. The following four protocols were compared: an overnight in-gel digestion protocol; an overnight in-gel digestion protocol, in which we remove the vacuum centrifugation steps; in-gel digestion in a barometric pressure cycler; and in-gel digestion in a scientific microwave. Several variables were tested for increased digestion efficiency and decreased keratin contamination. Statistical analysis was performed on replicate samples to determine significant differences between protocols.
General Relativity is extended into the quantum domain. A thought experiment
is explored to derive a specific topological build-up for Planckian space-time.
The presented arguments are inspired by Feynman's path integral for
superposition and Wheeler's quantum foam of Planck mass mini black
We will present STAR's recent dielectron measurements in the
Low and intermediate mass range for RHIC beam energies ranging between 19.6 and
200 GeV. Compared to electrons, muon measurements have the advantage of reduced
Bremsstrahlung radiation in the surrounding detector materials. With the
These results are established using a simulation study, and are then
illustrated with our motivating study on air pollution and respiratory ill
health in Greater Glasgow, Scotland in 2010. The model shows substantial health
effects of particulate matter air pollution and income deprivation, whose
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